Psychology

 

1. In behavioural psychotherapy :  
A. Flooding cannot be achieved in an imaginal way
F
B. Systematic desensitization is an aspect of aversive conditioning
F
C. Response prevention is characteristically combined with flooding
T
D. Physical restraint is no longer used in response prevention
F
E. Virtuous circles are a factor in most fear-reduction techniques
T
 
2. Simple phobias :
A. Are commoner in men
F
B. Mostly arise de novo in adulthood
F
C. Are best treated by relaxation training
F
D. Typically lead to symptoms of depersonalization
F
E. Are associated with mitral valve prolapse
F
 
3. The following terms are correctly defined :
A. Stimulus generalization is when a response learnt in one situation is exhibited in another
F
B. Primary reinforcers are things such as food and water
T
C. Secondary reinforcers are things such as sex, money, etc
F
D. Stimulus discrimination is when a learner responds differently to two slightly different stimuli
T
E. Response discrimination refers to the ability to make the same response in the same situation time after time
F
 
4. The following are true of various types of learning :
A. shaping is also known as ‘cognitive dissonance’
F
B. backward chaining can be used to teach children to toilet themselves
T
C. observational learning is a type of classical conditioning
F
D. modelling is a type of observational learning
T
E. a programme which begins with reinforcement of the last act in a sequence is known as ‘forward chaining’
F
 
5. Systematic desensitization :
A. was developed by Skinner
F
B. is a form of operant conditioning
F
C. is the treatment of choice for obsessional thoughts
F
D. relaxation is an essential part of the treatment
T
E. drugs can be used to produce relaxation
T
 
6. Variable ratio schedules of reinforcement :
A. can only be used in operant conditioning situations
F
B. need proportionally more trials to achieve a given criteria of learning
F
C. increase the resistance to extinction
T
D. are more likely to produce emotional outbursts during the learning phase
T
E. are less likely to produce emotional outbursts during the extinction phase
T
 
7. With reference to conditioning models of behaviour :
A. it is difficult to label any real life situation as totally operant or totally classical
T
B. in the 1940s, several psychoanalysts applied them successfully to demonstrate Freudian concepts
F
C. they can explain either systematic desensitization or flooding, but not both
F
D. they are increasingly demonstrating how unimportant cognitive factors are in behaviour
F
E. they emphasize the importance of timing and order in any learning situation
T
 
8. In classical conditioning:
A. Thorndike is a key figure
F
B. Spontaneous recovery only occurs after a short delay
F
C. The longer the time between extinction and reappearance of CS, the weaker the response
F
D. Forward conditioning is when the CS always precedes the UCS
T
E. The strength of CR is proportional to the intensity of the UCS
T
 
9. The following statements about classical conditioning are true:
A. The learned immune response is an example of classical conditionng
T
B. Taste aversions typify classical conditioning
F
C. Classical conditioning underlies systematic densitization
T
D. Second-order conditioning may be a model for the acquisition of phobias
T
E. Incubation means that some stimuli are more likely to become CS than others
F
 
10. Operant conditioning:
A. Is the same as Instrumental conditioning
T
B. Is associated with B. F. Skinner
T
C. Extinction and spontaneous recovery do not occur
F
D. Positive reinforcers are inherently rewarding, e.g. food, sex
F
E. Negative reinforcers weaken a particular response
F
 
11. The following are true of reinforcement:
A. Escape conditioning is an example of negative conditioning
T
B. A shuttle-box utilizes avoidance conditioning
F
C. Behaviour learned through avoidance conditioning is resistant to extinction as it is often reinforced by fear reduction
T
D. Money is a secondary reinforcer
T
E. Secondary reinforcers are also known as ‘conditioned reinforcers’
T
 
12. In reinforcement:
A. A variable ratio schedule means that reinforcement is given after a variable amount of time
F
B. Gambling is an example of variable-interval conditioning
F
C. Partial reinforcement is involved in the development of superstitious behaviour
T
D. Variable ratio reinforcement results in quick, stepped responding
F
E. Behaviour learned through partial reinforcement is very resistant to extinction
T
 
13. Regarding operant conditioning:
A. Punishment is synonymous with penalty
F
B. Punishment strengthens positive responses
F
C. Shaping is best used when the complete response desired is simple
F
D. Toilet training is an example of ‘backward chaining’
T
E. ‘Time-out’ is an example of the use of penalty
T
 
14. Regarding cognitive processes in learning:
A. Seligman described learned helplessness
T
B. Insight learning can occur in primates
T
C. Bandura demonstrated vicarious conditioning
T
D. Practice of a skill is necessary until the point of almost-correct performance
F
E. Sign-learning theory includes the formation of cognitive maps
T
 
15. The following are true of perceptual theories:
A. The ecological view states that the perceptual system constructs detail from clues in the environment
F
B. Constructionism is an example of top-down processing
T
C. Weber’s law states that as stimulus magnitude increases, larger changes in physical magnitude are required
F
D. Fechner’s law applies to electric shocks
F
E. Weber’s law does not hold when stimuli are very intense or very weak
T
 
16. In perceptual organization:
A. Camouflage demonstrates reversal of figure and ground
F
B. Perceptual phenomena demonstrate Gestalt effects
T
C. Gestalt theories are an example of bottom-up processing
F
D. Perception of depth and distance illustrate ecological views of perception
T
E. Perception of movement does not rely on movement of the retinal image
T
 
17. The following are true:
A. Perception of motion depends on interstimulus interval
T
B. Perceptual sets demonstrate top-down processing
T
C. Chunking of information facilitates processing
T
D. The ‘visual cliff’ suggests depth perception develops around six-months of age
F
E. Attention always occurs without conscious effort
F
 
18. The following are true of memory:
A. The capacity of short term memory (STM) can be increased by chunking
T
B. Visually-encoded information fades more quickly from STM
T
C. Decay theory suggests that forgetting is item-dependent
F
D. Retroactive inhibition suggests that previous learning impairs subsequent learning
F
E. ECT can interrupt consolidation and produce retrograde amnesia
T
 
19. Models of memory include:
A. Dual memory theory
T
B. Perceptual Representation System
F
C. Transfer-appropriate processing
T
D. Constructive memory
T
E. Maintenance rehearsal is more effective than elaborative rehearsal
F
 
20. Regarding the neurophysiology of memory:
A. Bilateral damage to the hippocampus produces retrograde amnesia
F
B. Basal forebrain lesions can result in a Korsakoff’s type memory deficit
T
C. 5-HT agonists impair cognition since acetylcholine release is under inhibitory 5-HT tone
T
D. Endorphins are involved in memory processes
T
E. RNA is involved in memory transfer
T
 
21. Regarding theories of thought:
A. Cognitive maps may exhibit systematic distortion
T
B. ‘Home’ is a natural concept
T
C. Scripts are mental representations of concepts
F
D. Problem solving involves ignoring negative evidence
F
E. Incubation can help to break mental sets
T
 
22. The following are true about theories of personality:
A. Adler described ‘striving for superiority’
T
B. Adler emphasized the importance of sexual urges
F
C. Jung described ‘introversion’ and ‘extraversion’
T
D. Trait theories employ a normothetic approach
T
E. Eysenck used a ‘dimensional’ approach to personality
T
 
23. Regarding personality:
A. Costa and McCrae’s model only holds in Westernized countries
F
B. John Watson is associated with personality research
T
C. Bandura described ‘reciprocal determinism’
T
D. Carl Rogers described ‘self-actualization’ and ‘self-concepts’
T
E. Maslow is associated with ‘conditions of worth’
F
 
24. The following are true of motivation:
A. Drive reduction theory is based on the principle of homeostasis
T
B. Primary drives are learned desires
F
C. People perform best when their level of arousal is low
F
D. ‘Need achievement’ demonstrates clear gender differences
T
E. Belongingness and love are at the apex of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
F
 
25. Regarding emotion:
A. Facial movements expressing emotion are controlled by the pyramidal system
F
B. The James-Lange theory emphasized the importance of physiological responses
T
C. The Cannon-Bard theory described ‘transferred excitation’
F
D. Social referencing only occurs in brain-damaged patients
F
E. Facial feedback can drive emotional experience according to the Schacter-Singer theory
F
 
26. Regarding social construction of the self and attribution theory:
A. Festinger described ‘social comparison’
T
B. ‘Relative deprivation’ means that however much we get, it is less than we deserve
T
C. According to attribution theory, in internal attribution, distinctiveness is high, and consensus and consistency are low
F
D. The fundamental attribution error means that we tend to overattribute the behaviour of others to external factors
F
E. The ultimate attribution error means that we attribute others positive actions to external causes, and negative actions to internal causes
T
 
27. Regarding attitudes:
A. Attitudes consist of cognitive, affective, and behavioural components
T
B. Attitudes can only be learned through operant conditioning
F
C. The ‘mere-exposure effect’ suggests that the more that we are exposed to an object, the more negative our attitudes will be towards it
F
D. The ‘Elaboration-likelihood model’ says that persuasive messages can change people’s attitudes via peripheral and central routes
T
 
28. The following are true of theories about attitudes:
A. Leon Festinger is associated with ‘cognitive dissonance theory’
T
B. Cognitive dissonance may be more likely to change attitudes in individualist cultures such as Europe or the USA
T
C. Daryl Bem is associated with ‘Self-perception theory’
T
D. ‘Self-perception theory’ suggests that people infer their behaviour to match their attitudes
F
E. People may change their behaviour in situations where they are not sure what their attitudes are
T
 
29. The following are true of prejudices and stereotypes:
A. The ‘authoritarian personality’ may be more likely in people who were not exposed to punishment, and so feel that they do not have to obey or defer to others
F
B. ‘Illusory correlations’ can occur when noticeably objective behaviour is performed by a few members of an easily identified ethnic group
T
C. The ‘contact hypothesis’ suggests that we are more likely to reduce our prejudices when we are exposed to members of the other group who are of a higher status
F
D. Norms can be descriptive (what others approve or disapprove of) or injunctive (indicate what others do)
F
E. Deindividuation may cause people to perform aggressive or illegal acts in certain situations
T
 
30. The following are true of conformity:
A. Compliance occurs when people adjust their behaviour as a result of unspoken group pressure
F
B. Ambiguity of the situation increases the likelihood of conforming to a group norm
T
C. ‘Social impact theory’ holds that the power of a group depends on how important and how close that group is to the person in question
T
D. Women are more likely to conform to a group than men
F
E. The presence of others who disobey can make someone more likely to be obedient
F
 
31. The following are true of aggression:
A. Freud proposed that aggression is a biological urge, and is due to Thanatos
T
B. The amygdala and hypothalamus are involved in aggression
T
C. Aggressive behaviour is more likely in collective cultures
F
D. Immediate reward or punishment can alter the frequency of aggressive acts
T
E. Aggression is more likely to occur following an expected failure than an unexpected one
F
 
32. In altruistic behaviour:
A. The ‘bystander effect’ indicates that the more people who witness an emergency, the less likely it is that someone will help
T
B. The tendency to blame oneself rather than the group is called ‘diffusion of responsibility’
F
C. Task-oriented leaders are more effective when the task is structured
F
D. Person-oriented leaders are most effective when the group is working under time pressure
F
E. ‘Groupthink’ is likely when the group is isolated, and is under time pressure
T
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