Neurotic, and somatoform disorders

 

1. The following are true in anxiety:  
A. Heart rate shows reduced deceleration after stress T
B. There is less beat-to-beat variation in heart rate F
C. Increased skin conductance T
D. Increased central NA and 5-HT activity T
E. Imipramine can induce panic in some people F
   
2. In hyperventilation there is:  
A. Bronchodilation F
B. Exaggerated sinus rhythm T
C. Vasodilation of cerebral arteries F
D. Reduced availability of oxyhaemoglobin T
E. Irritability of the autonomic nervous system T
   
3. The following are associated with phobic anxiety disorders:  
A. Enuresis T
B. Sexual problems T
C. Schizophrenia F
D. Dependent personality traits T
E. Major depressive disorder F
   
4. In agoraphobia:  
A. A common fear can be confinement T
B. Women are affected more than men T
C. Panic attacks are uncommon F
D. Mean age of onset is in the teens F
E. The majority of sufferers are unmarried F
   
5. In agoraphobia:  
A. 1st degree relatives of sufferers of panic disorder are at an increased risk of agoraphobia F
B. Lifetime prevalence is 20 % F
C. Patients tend to have a more unstable home background T
D. About 40 % of patients have depression or dysthymia T
E. There is an association with social phobia T
   
6. Regarding social phobia:  
A. Age of onset is in the late 30s F
B. Men are affected more than women F
C. Alcohol abuse is more common than in other phobias T
D. Six month prevalence is about 5 % F
E. There is a possible genetic link T
   
7. In social phobia:  
A. Dopamine activity may be abnormal T
B. There is a reported association with mitral valve prolapse F
C. MAOIs are effective treatments T
D. Buspirone is as effective as MAOIs F
E. Secondary depression may occur T
   
8. Regarding specific phobias:  
A. They are more common in women T
B. More men suffer from needle phobias F
C. Age of onset is usually in late adolescence F
D. They can be under voluntary control F
E. Avoidance is uncommon F
   
9. Regarding specific phobias:  
A. Boys are more likely to grow out of their phobias T
B. Females suffer from animal phobias more commonly F
C. Illness phobia is characterized by resistance F
D. Blood phobia often has a family history T
E. Classical conditioning is not thought to be involved F
   
10. Space phobia:  
A. Tends to develop in the late 20s F
B. Is frequently accompanied by depressive illness F
C. Is associated with a stable personality T
D. Nystagmus is frequently to the left T
E. Dizziness can occur on turning the head to the right T
   
11. Panic disorder:  
A. Has a lifetime prevalence of up to 3 % T
B. Average age of onset is 25 T
C. Has an equal sex ratio F
D. Is usually due to responses to a recognizable danger F
E. Anxiety is common between attacks F
   
12. The following substances can induce panic attacks:  
A. Flumazenil T
B. Cholecystokinin T
C. Sodium Lactate T
D. Yohimbine T
E. MCCP T
   
13. The following are true in panic disorder:  
A. There is an association with separation in early life T
B. Cognitive behavioural therapy is seldom used F
C. Antidepressants may cause over-stimulation during initial treatment T
D. PET scanning shows abnormalities in the right para-hippocampal area T
E. Panic attacks are seen psychoanalytically to involve reaction formation F
   
14. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD):  
A. Is characterized by "free-floating" anxiety T
B. Has equal sex prevalence F
C. Can present at any age T
D. Is more common in the third decade T
E. Seldom occurs with depressive symptoms F
   
15. Regarding the aetiology of GAD:  
A. GABA dysfunction has been implicated T
B. Has no genetic predisposition F
C. Has no association with mitral valve prolapse F
D. Psychoanalytic theories suggest that anxiety is a symptom of unfulfilled ego desires F
E. Male relatives of sufferers are more likely to misuse opiates F
   
16. The following suggest a poorer prognosis:  
A. Syncopal episodes T
B. Hysterical features T
C. Openness to therapy F
D. Derealization T
E. Hysterical features T
   
17. The Neurodevelopmental subtype of OCD is associated with:  
A. Late onset of disorder F
B. More common in males T
C. Less incidence of neurological signs F
D. Eating disorders F
E. Good response to SSRIs F
   
18. The Primary subtype of OCD is associated with:  
A. Episodic course T
B. Mood and anxiety symptoms T
C. More severe F
D. More common in females T
E. Frontal neuropsychological deficits T
   
19. The following are characteristic of obsessions and compulsions:  
A. Recognized as originating from outside of the body F
B. Resistance to all thoughts or acts F
C. With compulsive acts, the act must be a purposeful one T
D. Acts can be performed without a set of rules F
E. The thoughts or impulses do not have to be unpleasant F
   
20. Regarding obsessional thoughts, acts, etc.:  
A. Obsessional images have the quality of hallucinations F
B. Obsessional convictions may be delusional in intensity T
C. Handwashing is more common in women T
D. Obsessional slowness is more common in men T
E. Carrying out compulsive rituals results in an increase in anxiety F
   
21. Regarding obsessive compulsive disorder:  
A. There is equal sex prevalence T
B. Women present later than men F
C. Mean age of onset is 20 years T
D. Patients tend to present quickly to psychiatric services F
E. Studies have shown a cumulative age effect F
   
22. The following statements about the aetiology of OCD are true:  
A. MZ concordance suggests a genetic link T
B. Abnormal 5-HT function has been identified T
C. Many Tourette’s syndrome patients have obsessional symptoms T
D. One fifth of OCD patients have tics T
E. GABA function is abnormal F
   
23. The following processes occur in OCD according to psychoanalytic theory:  
A. Isolation T
B. Projection F
C. Reaction formation T
D. Ambivalence T
E. Denial F
   
24. Personality traits associated with OCD include:  
A. High expectations of unpleasant outcomes T
B. Anankastic traits T
C. Antisocial traits F
D. Perfectionism T
E. Erroneous perception of threat T
   
25. Brain imaging shows:  
A. Increased blood flow in the caudate nucleus T
B. Decreased blood flow in the cingulate gyrus F
C. Orbitofrontal cortical hypoperfusion F
D. Reduced size of caudate nucleus T
E. Normalization of findings with pharmacotherapy T
   
26. The following treatments can be used to treat OCD:  
A. Response prevention T
B. Thought stopping T
C. Behavioural therapy is especially effective for obsessional thoughts F
D. Clomipramine T
E. Subcaudate tractotomy T
   
27. Regarding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):  
A. Only occurs at a young age F
B. Can be diagnosed if symptoms occur 9 months after a major trauma F
C. Re-experiencing the event, increased arousal, and persistent avoidance are the key symptoms T
D. A higher prevalence is reported in males F
E. Hypersomnia is a common symptom F
   
28. The following are associated with increased vulnerability to PTSD:  
A. Childhood trauma T
B. Heavy alcohol intake T
C. Family psychiatric history T
D. Antisocial personality traits T
E. Recent stressful life changes T
   
29. The following have been reported in PTSD:  
A. Decreased urinary catecholamines F
B. Impaired long-term memory F
C. Reduced hippocampal volume T
D. Reduced response of the Noradrenaline systems F
E. Increased blood and urinary cortisol in chronic PTSD F
   
30. In Dissociative disorders:  
A. Primary gain is the benefit that is conferred by the symptoms F
B. A clear connection with stressful events is needed for the diagnosis to be made T
C. Freud proposed that the disorder was due to repressed ideas T
D. Kretschmer suggested a role for ‘reflex’ biological mechanisms T
E. Are synonymous with Briquet’s syndrome F
   
31. Dissociative amnesia:  
A. Is more common in women T
B. Is more common in older adults F
C. Is associated with multiple sclerosis T
D. Is associated with epilepsy T
E. There is no history of recent traumatic events F
   
32. Somatform disorders:  
A. Is the same as Briquet’s syndrome F
B. Can include Da Costa’s syndrome T
C. Have equal sex prevalence F
D. Includes irritable bowel syndrome T
E. Include hypochondriacal disorder T
   
33. Somatization disorder:  
A. Usually presents after teenage years F
B. Is comorbid with alcoholism T
C. Is comorbid with personality disorder T
D. The ‘sick role’ was described by Mechanic F
E. Illness behaviour was described by Pilowsky T
   
34. Hypochondriacal disorder:  
A. Is more common in women F
B. Age of onset is usually in the 40s F
C. Is frequently comorbid with anxiety and depressive illness T
D. Has an increased incidence of suicide F
E. Brain imaging shows marked abnormalities F
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