Neuroscience and Neurological disease

 


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1. Possible signs of posterior column damage include:  
A. Negative rombergism
F
B. Diminished tendon reflexes
T
C. Hypertonicity
F
D. Loss of vibration sense
T
E. Loss of proprioception
T
   
2. Features of Alzheimer’s disease may include:  
A. Glial proliferation
T
B. Cystic necrosis and gliosis
F
C. Granulovacuolar degeneration
T
D. Multiple micro-infarcts
F
E. Arteriosclerosis
F
   
3. Features of upper motor neuron lesions could include:  
A. Clonus
T
B. Cogwheel rigidity
F
C. Flexor plantar response
F
D. Preservation of muscle bulk
T
E. Increased tendon reflexes
T
   
4. Features of Pick’s disease might include:  
A. Frontal and parietal lobes mainly affected
F
B. ‘knife-blade’ atrophy
T
C. ‘balloon cells’
T
D. Absence of fibrous gliosis
F
E. Pick’s cells
T
   
5. Activation techniques in electroencephalography include:  
A. Dehydration
F
B. Sodium valproate
F
C. Alcohol
T
D. Hypoventilation
F
E. Sleep
T
   
6. Features of Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease include:  
A. Neuronal degeneration
T
B. Atrophy of caudate and putamen especially
F
C. Spongeiform changes
T
D. Does not affect the whole CNS
F
E. Glial proliferation
T
   
7. Possible features of lower motor neuron disease include:  
A. Atonic muscles
T
B. Absent reflexes
T
C. Loss of 100 % of muscle bulk
F
D. Clasp-knife rigidity
F
E. Tardive dyskinesia
F
   
8. Features of multi-infarct dementia include:  
A. Senile plaques
F
B. Neurofibrillary tangles
F
C. Hypertension
T
D. Cerebral ischaemia
T
E. Cerebral infarction
T
   
9. Functions of the non-dominant cerebral hemisphere may include:  
A. Holistic
T
B. Ideational
F
C. Pictorial
T
D. Geometric
T
E. Non-linear
T
   
10. Memory defects occur with lesions in:  
A. Medial-dorsal thalamic nucleus
T
B. Wernicke’s area
F
C. Walls of third ventricle
T
D. Broca’s area
F
E. Parietal cortex
F
   
11. The limbic system includes:  
A. Parahippocampal gyrus
T
B. Hypothalamus
T
C. Corpus callosum
F
D. Anterior nucleus of thalamus
T
E. Subcallosal gyrus
T
   
12. Diplopia occurs in:  
A. Neuropathy of oculomotor nerve
T
B. Parkinson’s disease
F
C. Neuropathy of facial nerve
F
D. Huntington’s disease
F
E. Diabetes insipidus
F
   
13. Associations of benign intracranial hypertension might include:  
A. Chlortetracycline administration
T
B. Myxoedema
F
C. Polycythaemia
T
D. Oral contraceptives
T
E. Hypoparathyroidism
T
   
14. Structures involved in the accommodation reflex include:  
A. Pretectal nucleus
F
B. Edinger-Westphal nucleus (bilaterally)
F
C. Lateral geniculate body
T
D. Inferior colliculus
F
E. Oculomotor nuclei of midbrain
T
   
15. Features of posterior inferior cerebellar artery occlusion might include:  
A. Contralateral Horner’s syndrome
F
B. Ipsilateral analgesia (limbs)
F
C. Contralateral ataxia
F
D. Dissociated analgesia
T
E. Ipsilateral analgesia (facial)
T
   
16. Nystagmus occurs in:  
A. Brain stem lesions
T
B. Labyrinthine disease
T
C. Cerebellar lesions
T
D. Healthy subjects
T
E. Rotational stimulation
T
   
17. Features of basilar artery occlusion could include:  
A. Monoplegia
T
B. Contralateral cerebellar signs
F
C. Quadriplegia
T
D. Hypopyrexia
F
E. Contralateral cranial nerve palsies
F
   
18. Features of general paresis (GPI) may include:  
A. ‘Rod cells’
T
B. Cortical thickening
F
C. Thinning of the dura
F
D. Perivascular lymphocytes
T
E. Spirochaetes found in the brain
T
   
19. Causes of mononeuritis multiplex include:  
A. Sarcoidosis
T
B. Bronchial carcinoma
T
C. Leprosy
T
D. Polyarteritis nodosa
T
E. Trauma
F
   
20. Features of pseudo-bulbar palsy include:  
A. Exaggerated jaw jerk
T
B. Emotional lability
T
C. Wasting of tongue
F
D. Facial muscles’ fasciculation
F
E. Dysphonia
T
   
21. Possible causes of sudden blindness include:  
A. Vitreous haemorrhage
T
B. Hysterical dissociation
F
C. Acute glaucoma
T
D. Methanol
T
E. Prolapsed intervertebral disc
F
   
22. Principal outputs of the basal ganglia go to:  
A. Cerebral cortex
F
B. Red nucleus
T
C. Tectum
T
D. Subthalamic nucleus
T
E. Substantia nigra
T
   
23. Functions of the limbic system may include:  
A. Emotional behaviour
T
B. Motivation
T
C. Sexual activity
T
D. Conditioned reflexes
T
E. Memory
T
   
24. Diencephalic structures include:  
A. Pons
F
B. Pituitary
T
C. Thalamus
T
D. Cerebellum
F
E. Hypothalamus
T
   
25. Functions of the reticular formation include:  
A. Arousal
T
B. Principal input to basal ganglia
F
C. Sleep
T
D. Vigilance
F
E. Principle input to limbic system
T
   
26. Features of the Brown-Sequard syndrome include:  
A. contralateral loss of conscious kinaesthesia
F
B. Ipsilateral loss of crude touch
F
C. Contralateral loss of two-point discrimination
F
D. Ipsilateral loss of temperature
F
E. Incomplete lateral hemisection of spinal cord
F
   
27. Branches of the basilar artery include:  
A. Posterior cerebral artery
T
B. Anterior cerebral artery
F
C. Posterior inferior cerebellar arteries
F
D. Anterior inferior cerebellar arteries
T
E. Labyrinthine arteries
T
   
28. Possible features of complete spinal cord transection include:  
A. Reflexes initially hyperactive
F
B. Loss of all voluntary movement below lesion
T
C. Development of automatic bladder in first 3 days usually
F
D. Loss of all perception of sensation below lesion
T
E. Loss of all reflexes after about three weeks
F
   
29. Possible components of the cerebellum include:  
A. Caudate nucleus
F
B. Dentate nucleus
T
C. Lentiform nucleus
F
D. Vermis
T
E. Cingulate gyrus
F
   
30. Features of anterior cerebral artery occlusion could include:  
A. Contralateral lower limb sensory deficits
T
B. Contralateral hemianopia
F
C. Clouding of consciousness
T
D. Motor aphasia
F
E. Contralateral lower limb paresis
T
   
31. Dopaminergic cell bodies are situated in:  
A. ventral tegmental area
T
B. Substantia nigra
T
C. Median raphe nucleus
F
D. Dorsal raphe nucleus
F
E. Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus
T
   
32. Telencephalic structures include:  
A. Oculomotor nerves
F
B. Basal ganglia
T
C. Crura cerebri
F
D. Optic nerves
F
E. Cerebral hemispheres
T
   
33. Functions of astrocytes might include:  
A. Myelin sheath production
F
B. Filling the role of fibrous tissue
T
C. Lining the cerebral ventricles
F
D. Most numerous of the glial cells
T
E. Lining the spinal canal
F
   
34. Maxillary division branches of the trigeminal ganglion include:  
A. Supraorbital nerve
F
B. Infraorbital nerve
T
C. Superior alveolar nerve
T
D. Inferior alveolar nerve
F
E. Nasociliary nerve
F
   
35. Components of the basal ganglia may include:  
A. Amygdaloid nucleus
T
B. Red nucleus
F
C. Dentate nucleus
F
D. Caudate nucleus
T
E. Subthalamic nucleus
F
   
36. Features of carotid sinus stimulation may include:  
A. Hyperventilation
F
B. Hypertension
F
C. Raised intracranial pressure
F
D. Peripheral vasodilation
T
E. Bradycardia
T
   
37. Components of the cerebellum include:  
A. Flocculonodular node
T
B. Alveus
F
C. Stria terminalis
F
D. Fastigial nucleus
T
E. Interpositus nucleus
T
   
38. Components of the Papez circuit include:  
A. Fornix
T
B. Mamillary body
T
C. Hippocampus
T
D. Thalamus
T
E. Cingulate gyrus
T
   
39. Possible components of the Pons include:  
A. Abducens nucleus
T
B. Oculomotor nucleus
F
C. Trapezoid body
T
D. Red nucleus
F
E. Corpora quadrigemina
F
   
40. Causes of pre-senile dementia include:  
A. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease
T
B. Simple schizophrenia
F
C. Subacute spongiform encephalopathy
T
D. Manic-depressive psychosis
F
E. Punch-drunk syndrome
T
   
41. Possible components of the pyramidal system include:  
A. Pyramidal tract
T
B. Vestibular nuclei
F
C. Anterior horn cells
T
D. Cerebellum
F
E. Cortico-spinal tract
T
   
42. Components of the direct and consensual light reflexes could include:  
A. Superior colliculus
F
B. Lateral geniculate body
F
C. Ciliary ganglion
T
D. Visual cortex
F
E. Constrictor muscles of iris
T
   
43. Components of the limbic system may include:  
A. Internal capsule
F
B. Median forebrain bundle
T
C. Corpus striatum
F
D. Isthmus
T
E. Medial lemniscus
F
   
44. The circle of Willis is formed by:  
A. Superior cerebellar artery
F
B. Posterior spinal artery
F
C. Posterior communicating artery
T
D. Middle cerebral artery
F
E. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
F
   
45. Posterior cerebral artery occlusions cause:  
A. Contralateral hemianalgesia
T
B. Ipsilateral hemianaesthesia
F
C. Spontaneous pain
T
D. Ipsilateral hemiplegia
F
E. Ipsilateral hemianopia
F
   
46. A left homonymous hemianopia may be due to a lesion in:  
A. Left optic tract
F
B. Right optic tract
T
C. Optic chiasma
F
D. Right lateral geniculate body
T
E. Left medial geniculate body
F
   
47. Features of cerebellar disease include:  
A. Pendular nystagmus
F
B. Dysdiadochokinesis
T
C. Resting tremor
F
D. Past pointing
T
E. Scanning dysarthria
T
   
48. Causes of papilloedema include:  
A. Central retinal vein thrombosis
T
B. Hypoparathyroidism
T
C. Cavernous sinus thrombosis
T
D. Hypercapnia
T
E. Cranial arteritis
T
   
49. The following structures are in the pons:  
A. Reticular formation
T
B. Substantia nigra
F
C. Locus coeruleus
T
D. Trigeminal nerve nucleus
T
E. Vestibular nuclei
T
   
50. The following structures are in the midbrain:  
A. Superior colliculus
T
B. Inferior colliculus
T
C. Substantia nigra
T
D. Ventral tegmental area
T
E. Medical longitudinal fasciculus
F


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