Classic Papers

What follows is a collection of classic texts. Some are of historical interest, whilst others are of more relevance to the modern psychiatrist.

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Descriptions of syndromes [Top]

Capgras, J. M. J. & Reboul-Lachaux, J. (1923) L'illusion des "sosies" dans un délire systématisé chronique. Bulletin de la Société Clinique de Médecine Mentale, 11, 6-16.

Courbon, P. & Fail, G. (1927) Syndrome d'illusion de Frégoli et schizophrénie. Bulletin de la Société Clinique de Médecine Mentale, 15, 121-125.

Meadow, R. (1977) Munchausen syndrome by proxy. The hinterland of child abuse. Lancet, 2, 343-345. [Medline]

Parkinson, J. (1817) An Essay on the Shaking Palsy. London: Sherwood, Neely and Jones.

Russell, G. (1979) Bulimia nervosa: an ominous variant of anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 9, 429-448.




Broca, P. (1861) Remarques sur le siége de la faculté du langage articulé, suivies d'une observation d'aphémie (perte de la parole). Bulletin de la Société Anatomique, 6, 330-357.

Harlow, J. M. (1848) Passage of an iron rod through the head. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 39, 389-393. This is the first published report of the railway worker, Phineas Gage's injuries.


Psychology [Top]

Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S. A. (1961) Transmission of aggressions through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.

Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210.

Harlow, H. F. (1958) The nature of love. American Psychologist, 13, 573-685.

James, W. (1884) What is an emotion? Mind, 9, 188-205.

Koffka, K. (1922) Perception: An introduction to the Gestalt-theorie. Psychological Bulletin, 19, 531-585.

Maslow, A. H. (1943) A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396.

Overmier, J. B. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1967) Effects of inescapable shock upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 63, 28-33.

Pavlov, I. P. (1927) Conditioned reflexes: An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex (G. V. Anrep, Trans.).

Rogers, C. R. (1946) Significant aspects of client-centered therapy. American Psychologist, 1, 415-422.

Stroop, J. R. (1935) Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28, 643-662.

Yerkes, R. M. & Dodson, J. D. (1908) The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459-482.


Epidemiology/ Populations [Top]

Brown, G. W., Sklair, F., Harris, T. O., et al (1973) Life-events and psychiatric disorders. 1. Some methodological issues. Psychological Medicine, 3, 74-87. [Medline]

Brown, G. W., Harris, T. O. & Peto, J. (1973) Life events and psychiatric disorders. 2. Nature of causal link. Psychological Medicine, 3, 159-176.

Greenberg, P. E., Stiglin, L. E., Finkelstein, S. N., et al (1993) Depression: a neglected major illness. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54, 419-424. This is the paper which calculates the cost of depression in the USA in 1990 to be $44 billion.

Murray, C. J. & Lopez, A. D. (eds) (1996) Summary: The Global Burden of Disease: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Geneva and Boston: World Health Organization and Harvard School of Public Health.

Parkes, C. M. (1970) The first year of bereavement. A longitudinal study of the reaction of London widows to the death of their husbands. Psychiatry, 33, 444-467. [Medline]

Thornicroft, G. & Sartorius, N. (1993) The course and outcome of depression in different cultures: 10-year follow-up of the WHO Collaborative Study on the Assessment of Depressive Disorders. Psychological Medicine, 23, 1023-1032. [Medline]

Vaughn, C. & Leff, J. (1976) The measurement of expressed emotion in the families of psychiatric patients. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 157-165. [Medline]


Addictions [Top]

Edwards, G. & Gross, M. M. (1976) Alcohol dependence: provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1, 1058-1061.


Schizophrenia [Top]

Brown, G. W. & Birley, J. L. (1968) Crises and life changes and the onset of schizophrenia. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 9, 203-214.

Johnstone, E. C., Crow, T. J., Frith, C. D., et al (1976) Cerebral ventricular size and cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia. Lancet, 2, 924-926. [Medline]

Leff, J. P. & Wing, J. K. (1971) Trial of maintenance therapy in schizophrenia. British Medical Journal, 3, 599-604.


Affective Disorders [Top]

Frank, E., Prien, R. F., Jarrett, R. B., et al (1991) Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 851-855. [Medline]

Elkin, I., Shea, M. T., Watkins, J. T., et al (1989) National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. General effectiveness of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 971-982.


Anxiety [Top]

Greenberg, P. E., Sisitsky, T., Kessler, R. C., et al (1999) The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427-435. This paper calculates the cost of anxiety disorders, in the same way that their paper did for depression.


Suicide/ Deliberate Self-Harm [Top]

Barraclough, B., Bunch, J., Nelson, B., et al (1974) A hundred cases of suicide: clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 355-373. [Medline]

Inskip, H. M., Harris, E. C. & Barraclough, B. (1998) Lifetime risk of suicide for affective disorder, alcoholism and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 35-37.


Forensic [Top]

Department of Health (1999) Safety First: Five-Year Report of the National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness. London: Department of Health.

Taylor, P. & Gunn, J. (1999) Homicides by people with mental illness: myth and reality. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 9-14. [BJPsych]


Drug Therapies [Top]

Cade, J. F. J. (1949) Lithium Salts in the Treatment of Psychotic Excitement. Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 349-352.

Coppen, A., Noguera, R., Bailey, J., et al (1971) Prophylactic lithium in affective disorders. Controlled trial. Lancet, 2, 275-279.

Delay, J., Deniker, P. & Harl, J. M. (1952) Therapeutic use in psychiatry of phenothiazine of central elective action (4560 RP). Annals of Medical Psychology (Paris), 110, 112-117. [Medline] The first report of the use of Chlorpromazine for schizophrenia.

Kane, J., Honigfeld, G., Singer, J., et al (1988) Clozapine for the treatment-resistant schizophrenic. A double-blind comparison with chlorpromazine. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 789-796. [Medline]

Kline, N. S. (1958) Clinical experiences with iproniazid (marsalid). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, 19, 72-78.

Kuhn, R. (1958) The treatment of depressive states with G 22355 (imipramine hydrochloride). American Journal of Psychiatry, 115, 459-464. [Medline]


Psychological Therapies [Top]


Other treatments [Top]

Burns, T., Beadsmoore, A., Bhat, A. V., et al (1993) A controlled trial of home-based acute psychiatric services. I: Clinical and social outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 49-54. [Medline]

Pippard, J. & Ellam, L. (1981) Electroconvulsive treatment in Great Britain. British Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 563-568. [Medline]

Stein, L. I. & Test, M. A. (1980) Alternative to mental hospital treatment. I. Conceptual model, treatment program, and clinical evaluation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 392-397. [Medline]


Miscellaneous [Top]

Szasz, T. S. & Hollender, M. H. (1960) The myth of mental illness. American Psychologist, 15, 113-118.


Rating Scales [Top]

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., et al (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561-571.

Endicott, J. & Spitzer, R. L. (1978) A diagnostic interview: the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837-844. [Medline]

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E. & McHugh, P. R. (1975) "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189-198. [Medline]

Hamilton, M. (1959) The assessment of anxiety states by rating. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 32, 50-55.

Hamilton, M. (1960) A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56-62.

Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A. & Opler, L. A. (1987) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261-276. [Medline]

Montgomery, S. A. & Asberg, M. (1979) A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. [Medline]

National Institute of Mental Health (1970) CGI: Clinical Global Impressions. In Manual for the ECDEU Assessment Battery (eds W. Guy & R. R. Bonato), pp. 217-222: National Institute of Mental Health.

Overall, J. E. & Gorham, D. R. (1962) The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799-812.

Young, R. C., Biggs, J. T., Ziegler, V. E., et al (1978) A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. British Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 429-435. [Medline]


All linked titles go to Classics in the History of Psychology, a superb online collection of classic papers. The Medline links take you to the citation in the National Library of Medicine Medline database.

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